Updated October 24, 2022
Most commercial mouthwashes contain chlorhexidine and/or fluoride. Most research compares agents to chlorhexidine (at 0.02% (2000 ppm)) which is effective but also toxic, staining and can affect mouth/gut ecology. Flouride 0.01% (100 ppm) is also in most oral products. Both of these concentrations are utilized world-wide.
The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is 6-8 times less than the 3% hydrogen peroxide in the stores (sometimes recommended by dentists). Teeth whitening strips can be as high as 6% H2O2 and dental offices can use up to 12% for teeth whitening. However, my research and personal use has suggested that even at 0.5% (5,000 ppm) or lower H2O2 is very powerful. We use food-grade hydrogen peroxide, while the stuff sold in stores is primarily for external use such as bleaching hair (however it can be used occasionally in the mouth if necessary).
The iodine content is approximately 25 ppm, a concentration used in the beer and other industries to disinfect surfaces. The essential oils, especially clove, have been used in the mouth for centuries and contain components that are both anti-microbial and anti-pain. The wintergreen and peppermint oils have anti-inflammatory functions. The xylitol component is non-caloric sugar that when ingested by certain yeasts and bacteria kill them. The niacinamide is in virtually all skin products to help with repair, and it is proven to do the same with gums and probably the other connective tissues in the mouth. It helps prevent skin cancer (New England Journal of Medicine, 2015) and probably other cancers as well. The boron (borax and boric acid) helps with bone healing and is also anti-microbial (especially yeasts such as Candida). The slightly alkaline pH counteracts the bacterial acids that decay teeth.
It is best used in conjunction with oil pulling, tongue scraping and brushing with baking soda. Since the upper teeth often enter the maxillary sinuses, using a sniffer can be an essential part of healing the skull.