Urine Testing

Updated July 26, 2022

Urine is a watery substance which carries specific wastes out of the body. It is made by the kidneys by filtering blood into a parallel tubing system and then transporting specific molecules back into the blood. Active transport means that energy must be expended to move desired constituents back into the blood. This is usually performed by specific complex transporters that exchange specific sets of chemicals like a powered revolving door. Some molecules, like water, passively transport back into the blood, following the “concentration gradient” of atoms such as sodium and potassium. There will be more about the kidneys in future posts, but this post focuses on urine from a functional point of view.

Molecules can serve three functions: nutritional, signaling and toxic. While the contents of urine are mostly toxic, some components serve as signals.  In nature, urine can provide nutrients and signals to the soil, or again act as a toxin.


We can see from the animal world (of which we are a part!), urine is also used to convey information such as territory and health, to other organisms of the same and different species.  Urine probably contains its own class of pheormones which are signal molecules that convey information from one animal to another, usually of the same species.

From a diagnostic point of view


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