Updated July 26, 2023
- Component of cell membranes, affects signaling and membrane-bound receptors
- Methyl donor, esp with folate deficiency
- Lipid transport
- Brain development, protection, and recovery possibly including Alzheimer’s dementia
- Needed to produce neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
- Has a role in cardiovascular and peripheral artery disease, neurological disorders and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
Essential nutrient, liver cannot manufacture the full daily requirement
Most people in the US, including 90-95% of pregnant women (according to the NIH), consume less than the optimal intake.
Supplemental forms include choline bitartrate, choline citrate (liquid), phosphatidylcholine and lecithin.
Choline deficiency can cause muscle damage, liver damage and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Low levels of certain B vitamins can increase choline requirements, and overlaps with fplat and other B vitamins.
See above for choline’s roles
While choline cannot be tested directly using conventional labs, another biomarker called TMAO, is measurable and involved in choline processing. Info from Quest and LabCorp are refenced below. Please go to their websites for more complete information.