Circadian Rhythm of Progesterone
While women have more progesterone, men have and need some, similarly to how women need some testosterone for optimal function. Progesterone is made from pregnenolone and cholesterol, both needed for sufficient levels or progesterone (and why stress and starvation can cause loss of cycles and fertility). Progesterone has both a monthly and daily (circadian) cycle. The monthly cycle will be reviewed in a separate post on the Menstrual Cycle. While Progesterone peaks in the late afternoon to early evening, such as 4 pm to 7 pm. Like most hormones, the influences on progesterone pattern and it’s affect on other processes vary from individual to individual.
what is the circadian rhythm of progesterone
Progesterone, a hormone primarily associated with the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, follows a circadian rhythm. Its levels typically rise during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, peaking in the late afternoon to early evening, and then decreasing during the night. This pattern is regulated by the body’s internal clock, with levels typically being lowest in the morning hours.
However, while this general pattern exists, individual variations in circadian rhythms and hormonal fluctuations can occur based on factors like sleep patterns, stress levels, and overall health.
what about estrogen and testosterone
Estrogen and testosterone, like many hormones in the body, also follow circadian rhythms.
Estrogen levels can vary throughout the menstrual cycle in women, peaking just before ovulation. In men, estrogen is present in smaller amounts but still follows a daily pattern, generally peaking in the morning and decreasing in the evening.
Testosterone levels in men tend to peak in the early morning hours and decrease throughout the day. In women, testosterone levels are lower but still fluctuate within a circadian rhythm, with some studies suggesting a peak in the morning as well.
These patterns can be influenced by various factors including age, sex, sleep quality, stress, and overall health. Hormonal rhythms can also be disrupted by conditions, medications, or lifestyle factors.
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tell me about yeast and candida infection of the gastric mucosa with references
Yeast and Candida are types of fungi that can infect the gastric mucosa, which is the inner lining of the stomach. Candida infection of the gastric mucosa is known as gastric candidiasis, and it can occur in people with weakened immune systems or those who have taken antibiotics or acid-suppressing drugs.
Yeast and Candida infections of the gastric mucosa can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating. In severe cases, the infection can lead to perforation of the stomach wall, which can be life-threatening.
The diagnosis of yeast and Candida infections of the gastric mucosa is usually made by taking a biopsy of the stomach lining and examining it under a microscope. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as fluconazole or amphotericin B, which can be administered orally or intravenously.
Here are some references for further reading on yeast and Candida infections of the gastric mucosa:
Watanabe T, Ota S, Nishimura K, et al. Gastric candidiasis in non-immunocompromised patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(33):9848-9854. doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i33.9848
Soliman S, Hammad H, Khalaf H, Gomaa M, Hassanein F. Gastric candidiasis: a rare disease presentation. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2014;23(4):451-454.
Vuotto F, Donelli G. Pathogenicity of Candida species in the gastrointestinal tract. Molecules. 2015;20(5):9096-9118. doi:10.3390/molecules20059096
Aghili SR, Bagheri Lankarani K, Mehrzadi S. Gastric candidiasis in critically ill patients. Mycoses. 2017;60(10):669-678. doi:10.1111/myc.12663